talk about something else; Guido and I were talking about the
prehistoric people, respectively the Stone Age people, and there, the
question arose as to when these had actually come so far that they
banded together in larger groups and when these or their descendants
built the first smaller and larger settlements, smaller or larger kraals
or small villages, etc. In addition, we also came to speak of the first
real, original-original prehistoric men, if one can actually designate
the most distant, original-original forefathers of the Earth people as
such. Here, the question, then, is how large they actually were and
whether they were already walking upright. Also, we came to the first,
respectively the left-over and subsequent animals, specifically speaking
of the mammals that occupied the Earth after the extinction of the
dinosaurs. The real interest was with the predators and the horses and
even the large mammals and so on. What is also of interest to us is when
the Earth’s climate basically began to stabilize itself. Since these
things also belong to one of your specialties, I guess that you can
certainly tell us something about it.
34. The Earth’s climate began to stabilize itself around 35 million
35. And if I should provide some information about mammals and also
predators, which appeared about 65 million years ago after the great
catastrophe, then I must speak of the times of the Eocene and Oligocene.
36. As you know, the impact of a space projectile took place on the
Earth about 65 million years ago, by what means all major life forms
were killed and destroyed.
37. Only small creatures were able to survive, which only weighed up to
10 or 12 kilograms at most.
38. The first human forms, which can already be very well designated in
their origin as human beings, emerged around 49 million years ago.
39. Nevertheless, their appearance wasn’t human but rather in the form
that the Earth person knows of the early hominid, due to his conceptions,
because the first human forms still had nothing comparable with these.
40. In fact, these beings were only about 80 centimeters large, and they
partially moved half-upright on their legs, and their excessively long
arms partially clambered around in the trees.
41. The development of these beings lasted for a very long time, with
the most diverse species following from it, which developed into
actually recognizable humans in their first species – even the early
hominids, as the Earth person imagines them in their early stages –
around 8.5 million years ago, while other species of the same genus
appeared 4.5 and 6.5 million years ago.
42. There were precursors to these species, but already 12.6 and 16.7
million years ago.
43. From the more distant descendants of all these human forms, who
appeared in various places on the Earth, such as in Africa, Australia,
Japan, China, America, South America and in Europe, etc., as you now
call these areas, there were already early accumulations of dwellings –
settlements, as you say – in which whole kinships gathered together.
44. Such sites are known to us on Earth, and they exhibit an age of
736,000 and of 811,000, 970,000 and 1,200,000 years.
45. Even after the dinosaurs, there were naturally predators that could
have competed with the Tyrannosaurus Rex, for example.
46. There was, for example, the family of
Hyaenodonts, but these aren’t the ancestors of today's hyenas, yet
they were aggressive, powerful predators, whose most distant,
evolutionary altered descendants are the moles.
47. A Hyaenodont reached a size of 170 to 180 centimeters, had a set of
razor-sharp teeth, and especially the molars were razor-sharp grinding
tools, with which even the thickest bones of victims could be easily
crushed for digestion.
48. The primitive genetic blueprint of these great predators has been
preserved to this day in the mole, whose incisors come from the same
evolutionary line as those of the Hyaenodonts.
49. So today's mole is really nothing other than a predator, albeit a
small predator that only eats worms, beetles, larvae, and so on.
50. Hyaenodonts, like the mole also is, were rogues.
51. Hyaenodonts were ruthless predators, but there were others that even
surpassed these, namely the Entelodonts,
to which the endless savannas and hardwood forests offered abundant
52. These were actually the most powerful predators that lived at the
same time with the Hyaenodonts, which disappeared even before the
Entelodonts. The Entelodonts reached more than 2 meters in size and
weighed more than 1,000 kilograms.
53. These animals were extremely aggressive and exhibited an actual
pre-kinship to today's wild boars living on the Earth.
54. They were omnivores and had no enemies – except their own kind.
55. Rogues, like the Hyaenodonts, met one another as a result of their
distinct sense of smell, like also the Hyaenodonts, when other animals
were seized or when cadavers showed them the way.
56. This led to serious fights with their equals, which were frequently
associated with severe and bone-shattering injuries and which also often
ended with subsequent death.
57. It goes without saying that these powerful, great predators had no
other natural enemies and, thus, were the actual rulers over all life
forms at that time.
58. Their only enemies were their own members of the same species.
59. If they encountered each other, then they mutually attacked and
maltreated themselves with their up to one-meter-long jaws, which were
fitted with razor-sharp teeth.
60. But at another time, there was also the Endrosacus, also an
extremely aggressive predator that weighed well over a ton and that was
the earliest ancestor of today's sheep and also probably the largest
predator that lived on the Earth after the time of the dinosaurs.
61. Nevertheless, this wasn’t the largest animal, for that was the
Indricotherium/pict-below, which exhibited a size of over 7 meters and a weight
of up to 17 tons.
compared to a man
62. This animal at that time was the real, first prototype, from which
developed the rhinoceros - below - that is well-known to you.
63. The most powerful and most unusual mammal appeared on the Earth a
little more than 2 million years ago, the
Megatherium - below
64. This was a giant sloth that walked upright on its hind legs and ate
65. Unlike today's sloths that live in trees and that are very slow and
ponderous, the Megatherium was too immense and too heavy to be able to
climb trees, like also the giant rodent that was the size of a modern
cow, which lived 6 to 10 million years ago.
Megatherium was as large as
a medium-sized elephant, weighing over 4,000 kilograms and measuring 6
66. Only a few thousand years ago, this giant sloth lived in North and
South America, but it was hunted by humans for its great-tasting meat
until it was wiped out, as this also happened with the mammoth, which
was also largely eliminated by the humans at that time, while the
remaining animals found their end through climatic upheavals and natural
67. And since I speak now of the mammoth, you will surely ask about the
elephants, respectively for their actual original-original forefathers:
68. This was the Neureterium, which also lived millions of years ago and
which developed, over a very long evolutionary process, into what you
now know as the elephant.
You forgot the horse. – And, and how large, then, was the Hyaenodont?
69. I have, in fact, forgotten this.
70. But first, the Hyaenodont.
71. This was about as large as a current rhinoceros.
72. The original-original forefathers of horses were very small and only
had a size of just less than 30 centimeters.
73. Then, from these, the
Chalicotherium developed at a later time, which was more than 3
meters in size and which had a short snout like an anteater, as well as
a long neck; therefore, with a little imagination, it could be compared
to a giraffe.